GMO stands for genetically modified organism. It is used to describe any organism whose genetic material has been changed through genetic engineering. They have been used to manufacture drugs and genetically modified foods.
The genetic modification can take the form of gene mutation, inserting genes from another organism, or eliminating genes. There are several ways that genes can be introduced from other organisms. One way is by attaching the gene to a virus. Another way is to insert DNA into the cell nucleus using a syringe, and another is using an electric pulse to insert new genes.
Genetically modified crops are plants where the DNA has been changed, usually to add a new trait to the plant that does not exist naturally. The new trait could be a greater resistance to disease, or insects, or cold weather, or certain herbicides, or higher nutritional value.
There is a great deal of controversy surrounding GMO foods. Many people are concerned that there still is not enough information about these types of foods, their risks, and their effects on human health, even though they are already being consumed by people. There is general agreement among scientists that genetically modified foods are no more dangerous than regular food, but that each new form needs to be tested before being added to the food supply.